Amélie Bonnefond, Anne Raimondo, Fanny Stutzmann, Maya Ghoussaini, Shwetha Ramachandrappa, David C. Bersten, Emmanuelle Durand, Vincent Vatin, Beverley Balkau, Olivier Lantieri, Violeta Raverdy, François Pattou, Wim Van Hul, Luc Van Gaal, Daniel J. Peet, Jacques Weill, Jennifer L. Miller, Fritz Horber, Anthony P. Goldstone, Daniel J. Driscoll, John B. Bruning, David Meyre, Murray L. Whitelaw, Philippe Froguel
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that can occur in multiple organ sites and is primarily found in the salivary gland. While the identification of recurrent fusions of the
Philip J. Stephens, Helen R. Davies, Yoshitsugu Mitani, Peter Van Loo, Adam Shlien, Patrick S. Tarpey, Elli Papaemmanuil, Angela Cheverton, Graham R. Bignell, Adam P. Butler, John Gamble, Stephen Gamble, Claire Hardy, Jonathan Hinton, Mingming Jia, Alagu Jayakumar, David Jones, Calli Latimer, Stuart McLaren, David J. McBride, Andrew Menzies, Laura Mudie, Mark Maddison, Keiran Raine, Serena Nik-Zainal, Sarah O’Meara, Jon W. Teague, Ignacio Varela, David C. Wedge, Ian Whitmore, Scott M. Lippman, Ultan McDermott, Michael R. Stratton, Peter J. Campbell, Adel K. El-Naggar, P. Andrew Futreal
Hippocampal development is coordinated by both extracellular factors like GABA neurotransmission and intracellular components like DISC1. We previously reported that SLC12A2-dependent GABA depolarization and DISC1 coregulate hippocampal neuronal development, and 2 SNPs in these genes linked to mRNA expression interactively increase schizophrenia risk. Using functional MRI, we now confirm this biological interaction in vivo by showing in 2 independent samples of healthy individuals (total
Joseph H. Callicott, Emer L. Feighery, Venkata S. Mattay, Michael G. White, Qiang Chen, David A.A. Baranger, Karen F. Berman, Bai Lu, Hongjun Song, Guo-li Ming, Daniel R. Weinberger
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a genetically mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. B cells have recently emerged as major contributors to disease pathogenesis, but the mechanisms responsible for the loss of B cell tolerance in patients with MS are largely unknown. In healthy individuals, developing autoreactive B cells are removed from the repertoire at 2 tolerance checkpoints during early B cell development. Both of these central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints are defective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we found that only the peripheral, but not the central, B cell tolerance checkpoint is defective in patients with MS. We show that this specific defect is accompanied by increased activation and homeostatic proliferation of mature naive B cells. Interestingly, all of these MS features parallel defects observed in FOXP3-deficient IPEX patients, who harbor nonfunctional Tregs. We demonstrate that in contrast to patients with RA or T1D, bone marrow central B cell selection in MS appears normal in most patients. In contrast, patients with MS suffer from a specific peripheral B cell tolerance defect that is potentially attributable to impaired Treg function and that leads to the accumulation of autoreactive B cell clones in their blood.
Tuure Kinnunen, Nicolas Chamberlain, Henner Morbach, Tineke Cantaert, Megan Lynch, Paula Preston-Hurlburt, Kevan C. Herold, David A. Hafler, Kevin C. O’Connor, Eric Meffre
The ELR+-CXCL chemokines have been described typically as potent chemoattractants and activators of neutrophils during the acute phase of inflammation. Their role in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory vascular disease, has been largely unexplored. Using a mouse model of atherosclerosis, we found that CXCL5 expression was upregulated during disease progression, both locally and systemically, but was not associated with neutrophil infiltration. Unexpectedly, inhibition of CXCL5 was not beneficial but rather induced a significant macrophage foam cell accumulation in murine atherosclerotic plaques. Additionally, we demonstrated that CXCL5 modulated macrophage activation, increased expression of the cholesterol efflux regulatory protein ABCA1, and enhanced cholesterol efflux activity in macrophages. These findings reveal a protective role for CXCL5, in the context of atherosclerosis, centered on the regulation of macrophage foam cell formation.
Anthony Rousselle, Fatimunnisa Qadri, Lisa Leukel, Rüstem Yilmaz, Jean-Fred Fontaine, Gabin Sihn, Michael Bader, Amrita Ahluwalia, Johan Duchene
Milk fat globule-EGF 8 (MFGE8) plays important, nonredundant roles in several biological processes, including apoptotic cell clearance, angiogenesis, and adaptive immunity. Several recent studies have reported a potential role for MFGE8 in regulation of the innate immune response; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this role are poorly understood. Here, we show that MFGE8 is an endogenous inhibitor of inflammasome-induced IL-1β production. MFGE8 inhibited necrotic cell–induced and ATP-dependent IL-1β production by macrophages through mediation of integrin β3 and P2X7 receptor interactions in primed cells.
Nicolas Deroide, Xuan Li, Dominique Lerouet, Emily Van Vré, Lauren Baker, James Harrison, Marine Poittevin, Leanne Masters, Lina Nih, Isabelle Margaill, Yoichiro Iwakura, Bernhard Ryffel, Marc Pocard, Alain Tedgui, Nathalie Kubis, Ziad Mallat
iRHOM2, encoded by the gene
Priya Darshinee A. Issuree, Thorsten Maretzky, David R. McIlwain, Sébastien Monette, Xiaoping Qing, Philipp A. Lang, Steven L. Swendeman, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Nikolaus Binder, George D. Kalliolias, Anna Yarilina, Keisuke Horiuchi, Lionel B. Ivashkiv, Tak W. Mak, Jane E. Salmon, Carl P. Blobel
HIV infection results in gastrointestinal (GI) tract damage, microbial translocation, and immune activation, which are not completely ameliorated with suppression of viremia by antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Furthermore, increased morbidity and mortality of ARV-treated HIV-infected individuals is associated with these dysfunctions. Thus, to enhance GI tract physiology, we treated SIV-infected pigtail macaques with ARVs, probiotics, and prebiotics or with ARVs alone. This synbiotic treatment resulted in increased frequency and functionality of GI tract APCs, enhanced reconstitution and functionality of CD4+ T cells, and reduced fibrosis of lymphoid follicles in the colon. Thus, ARV synbiotic supplementation in HIV-infected individuals may improve GI tract immunity and thereby mitigate inflammatory sequelae, ultimately improving prognosis.
Nichole R. Klatt, Lauren A. Canary, Xiaoyong Sun, Carol L. Vinton, Nicholas T. Funderburg, David R. Morcock, Mariam Quiñones, Clayton B. Deming, Molly Perkins, Daria J. Hazuda, Michael D. Miller, Michael M. Lederman, Julie A. Segre, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Elias K. Haddad, Jacob D. Estes, Jason M. Brenchley
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are thought to maintain homeostasis and contribute to long-term repair in adult white matter; however, their roles in the acute phase after brain injury remain unclear. Mice that were subjected to prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion stress developed white matter demyelination over time. Prior to demyelination, we detected increased MMP9 expression, blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, and neutrophil infiltration in damaged white matter. Notably, at this early stage, OPCs made up the majority of MMP9-expressing cells. The standard MMP inhibitor GM6001 reduced the early BBB leakage and neutrophil infiltration, indicating that OPC-derived MMP9 induced early BBB disruption after white matter injury. Cell-culture experiments confirmed that OPCs secreted MMP9 under pathological conditions, and conditioned medium prepared from the stressed OPCs weakened endothelial barrier tightness in vitro. Our study reveals that OPCs can rapidly respond to white matter injury and produce MMP9 that disrupts the BBB, indicating that OPCs may mediate injury in white matter under disease conditions.
Ji Hae Seo, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Loc-Duyen D. Pham, Takakuni Maki, Cenk Ayata, Kyu-Won Kim, Eng H. Lo, Ken Arai
Long-lived memory T cells are able to persist in the host in the absence of antigen; however, the mechanism by which they are maintained is not well understood. Recently, a subset of human T cells, stem cell memory T cells (TSCM cells), was shown to be self-renewing and multipotent, thereby providing a potential reservoir for T cell memory throughout life. However, their in vivo dynamics and homeostasis still remain to be defined due to the lack of suitable animal models. We identified T cells with a TSCM phenotype and stem cell–like properties in nonhuman primates. These cells were the least-differentiated memory subset, were functionally distinct from conventional memory cells, and served as precursors of central memory. Antigen-specific TSCM cells preferentially localized to LNs and were virtually absent from mucosal surfaces. They were generated in the acute phase of viral infection, preferentially survived in comparison with all other memory cells following elimination of antigen, and stably persisted for the long term. Thus, one mechanism for maintenance of long-term T cell memory derives from the unique homeostatic properties of TSCM cells. Vaccination strategies designed to elicit durable cellular immunity should target the generation of TSCM cells.
Enrico Lugli, Maria H. Dominguez, Luca Gattinoni, Pratip K. Chattopadhyay, Diane L. Bolton, Kaimei Song, Nichole R. Klatt, Jason M. Brenchley, Monica Vaccari, Emma Gostick, David A. Price, Thomas A. Waldmann, Nicholas P. Restifo, Genoveffa Franchini, Mario Roederer
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