MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of a variety of biological processes and pathways. In this issue of the JCI, Ahmed et al. reveal that miR-7a2 is a critical regulator of sexual maturation and reproductive function, as mice lacking miR-7a2 develop hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. Using a bioinformatics approach, the authors identified several miR-7a2 target genes and pathways that have not been previously associated with gonadotropin biosynthesis and/or secretion. Together, these results identify miR-7a2–regulated genes involved in reproductive hormone biosynthesis pathways and provide a framework for future studies aimed at understanding rare reproductive conditions.